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The operating system returned error 1117

Error: -

When you run database consistency check on database, it will not run successfully and will throw below errors.

DBCC checkdb on msdb database failed with errors:- Msg 1823, Level 16, State 2, Line 1 A database snapshot cannot be created because it failed to start.
Msg 7928, Level 16, State 1, Line 1
The database snapshot for online checks could not be created. Either the reason is given in a previous error or one of the underlying volumes does not support sparse files or alternate streams. Attempting to get exclusive access to run checks offline.
Msg 5030, Level 16, State 12, Line 1
The database could not be exclusively locked to perform the operation.
Msg 7926, Level 16, State 1, Line 1
Check statement aborted. The database could not be checked as a database snapshot could not be created and the database or table could not be locked. See Books Online for details of when this behavior is expected and what workarounds exist. Also see previous errors for more details.
Msg 823, Level 24, State 2, Line 1
The operating system returned error 1117(failed to retrieve text for this error. Reason: 1815) to SQL Server during a read at offset 0000000000000000 in file 'e:\MSSQL10.MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL\DATA\MSDBData.mdf:MSSQL_DBCC7'.
Additional messages in the SQL Server error log and system event log may provide more detail. This is a severe system-level error condition that threatens database integrity and must be corrected immediately. Complete a full database consistency check (DBCC CHECKDB). This error can be caused by many factors; for more information, see SQL Server Books Online.

Analysis: -

This error is a little more generic. In most cases this error be caused by a permissions issue on the root of the drive where the database belongs. Try running checkdb for other databases residing at same location. If it ran fine then this will be more of a corruption related issue and not related to permissions.

Resolution: -

If the corruption is so bad we can not even run a dbcc checkdb, then we will need to restore database.

What caused this database corruption?

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